Tag Archives: glutathione

Part 1: Alzheimer’s Prevention? Special Foods and Cysteine and Glutathione Levels

The amino acids cysteine and glutathione play a role, it seems, in preventing the onset of Alzheimer’s. Evidently, according to a study by SS Karuppagounder, JT Pinto, et al., in their study on “Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease” from the Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, at the Burke Medical Research Institute, in White Plains, New York, the amino acid levels of cysteine and glutathione are affected in Alzheimer’s patients by the same types of chemopreventive agents (cancer-preventing foods) that cancer patients would eat to help prevent cancer.

One food constituent in particular was studied by the researchers—Resveratrol. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is found in peanuts, pomegranates, soybeans, and especially red wine. People have heard for years about resveratrol being good for the heart, but evidently it is good for the brain as well, including other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.

Even though resveratrol was fed to the hosts for forty-five days, it was not detectable in the brain, yet plaque formation in the regions of the brain were diminished. The majority of the diminished brain-plaques were “observed in medial cortex (-48%), striatum (-89%) and hypothalamus (-90%). … However, brain glutathione declined 21% and brain cysteine increased 54%.”

Cysteine and Glutathione’s role in chemopreventive agents

There is a list of foods, called chemopreventive agents, which help prevent cancer, that also may help with oxidative stress, destroying free radicals that also cause DNA damage, or help prevent plaques in the brain of people who may otherwise be developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). I will cover some of these agents first:

According to one source, there are two such agents that have carcinogen-detoxifying activity that “might be achieved by combination of an agent such as N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), which provides substrate for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, with agents such as oltipraz or garlic/onion disulfides, which enhance GSH S-transferases (GST).”

The food constituents will be listed further in our next section…

CONTINUE TO Part 2: Alzheimer’s Prevention? Special Foods and Cysteine and Glutathione Levels 

References:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041676

http://nutrition.highwire.org/content/130/2/467S.full

http://naturalsolutionsradio.com/blog/natural-solutions-radio-administrator/amazing-nutrient-reduces-alzheimers-plaque-formation-nine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797420/

Part 2: Alzheimer’s Prevention? Special Foods and Cysteine and Glutathione Levels

CONTINUED FROM Part 1: Alzheimer’s Prevention? Special Foods and Cysteine and Glutathione Levels, where we covered the research done on Alzheimer’s patients that found Resveratrol affected cysteine and glutathione levels, raising the former, and reducing the latter, and their connection to reduced brain plaques. 

Chemopreventive agents that help cancer patients may also help Alzheimer’s patients…

Chemopreventive agents (food constituents), cysteine, and glutathione

Food-derived chemopreventive agents may help when used by normal-risk populations with long-term use. According to a study by GJ Kelloff, JA Crowell, et al., and their assessment, there are 40 promising agents and food combinations “being evaluated clinically as chemopreventive agents for major cancer targets including breast, prostate, colon and lung. Examples include green and black tea polyphenols, soy isoflavones, Bowman-Birk soy protease inhibitor, curcumin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, lycopene, indole-3-carbinol, perillyl alcohol, vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium and calcium.” Many of these agents are available to purchase online from supplement vendors such as: GNC.com and Vitaminshoppe.com

Additionally, some natural sources that have anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-viral constituents includes a huge variety of medicinal mushrooms like reishi, maitake, cordyceps, shiitake, and so on. Lion’s mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus), in particular, boasts boosting of cognitive function, memory, and learning in those who take them regularly, as well as immune-enhancing health benefits.

Many amino acids are also known to be brain food. Cysteine and glutathione were the aminos that were implicated in the first study mentioned above, although it was the higher levels of cysteine and lowered glutathione that helped the plaque in Alzheimer’s patients.

Cysteine is a semi-essential (normally listed as a non-essential) amino acid. When it is used as a food additive, it has the E number “E920”. In rare cases this amino acid may be important for infants or the elderly, or for people with malabsorption syndromes or metabolic disease. As long as enough methionine is available, cysteine can usually be synthesized by the body.

Cysteine is found in protein foods like: beef, pork, poultry, eggs, and dairy, and in lesser amounts in plant sources such as garlic, onions, broccoli, red peppers, Brussels sprouts, granola/oats, wheat germ, or lentils.

The non-essential amino acid glutathione works as an important antioxidant in animals and plants, fungi and some bacteria, as well as archaea, preventing free radicals and peroxides damage. However, glutathione is not considered an essential nutrient since it can be produced by the body (outside of food) from the amino acids L-cysteine, L-glutamic acid, as well as glycine.

Interestingly, the sulfhydryl (thiol) group of the amino acid cysteine is actually the amino acid responsible for glutathione’s activity in the body. This is why they are connected. Cysteine limits glutathione synthesis in cells since glutathione is rare in foodstuffs.

Remember that in the original study on Alzheimer’s patients and reduced brain plaque formation, it was the connection of increased cysteine and decreased glutathione that may be the link. That study, according to the researchers, “supports the concept that onset of neurodegenerative disease may be delayed or mitigated with use of dietary chemo-preventive agents that protect against beta-amyloid plaque formation and oxidative stress.”

With this in mind, be aware of the fact that chemopreventive foods like Resveratrol in red wine, or garlic, not only may help prevent cancer or improve cardiovascular health, but also are connected to a reduction in Alzheimer’s disease rates due to how it affects amino acids cysteine and glutathione levels. Please check with your doctor before altering your diet.

References:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041676

http://nutrition.highwire.org/content/130/2/467S.full

http://naturalsolutionsradio.com/blog/natural-solutions-radio-administrator/amazing-nutrient-reduces-alzheimers-plaque-formation-nine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797420/

Can Increasing Glutathione Improve Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Can glutathione help schizophrenia? Schizophrenia, a psychological disorder characterized by impairment in a person’s ability to think clearly and manage emotions, is believed to affect an estimated 300,000 Canadians. Worldwide, up to 0.7 per cent of individuals are diagnosed with the mental disorder. Even Vincent Van Gogh, the artist who created the famous “The Starry Night” painting, suffered from schizophrenia.

Symptoms can include paranoia, delusions, disorganized speech and thought process and auditory hallucinations. Individuals living with schizophrenia may encounter significant social or occupational difficulties. It is believed the disorder is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the biological factors may be due to low levels of the tripeptide glutathione.

In a study conducted at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, researchers looked at a precursor of glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, to see if it would improve neural synchronicity. Previous studies revealed that irregularities in neural connectivity leads to the symptoms expressed in schizophrenics.

For the double-blind, randomized trial researchers Cristian Carmeli, Maria Knyazeva, Michel Cuenod and Kim Do examined whether treatment with glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine would improve EEG synchronization in schizophrenic patients. Eleven patients with a history of schizophrenia participated in the study.

One group received glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine for two months as part of their treatment and placebo for the second half of treatment. Another group was given the placebo treatment first for two months and then the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine treatment for the two months after. All participants remained on their usual antipsychotic medication throughout the trial. EEG recordings were done before treatment, at the crossover and at the end of the trial.

The effects of the glutathione precursor in neural synchronicity

At the end of the experiment, the researchers found that glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine significantly increased EEG synchronization, especially in the clusters located over the parieto-temporal, right temporal and right prefrontal lobes. The researchers believe that with treatment of glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine, negative symptoms of schizophrenia will improve along with reduced side-effects of antipsychotics.

Based on these results they’re hopeful that the precursor to glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, has huge potential to be used towards treatment for schizophrenia.

Souce:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22383949

Whey Protein: The Superfood that Slows Aging – Amino Acids and Glutathione

Lots of chatter has been going on about so-called Superfoods these days, such as spinach being packed with nutrition, when vegetables like swiss chard have far more nutrients ounce-for-ounce. Similarly, there is chatter about what is or is not a Superfood, like whey protein, since it is considered a supplement rather than a whole food. However, according to Dr. Mercola—whom has written on the “Top 7 Foods That Slow Your Aging” it is whey protein that is the exception and should be added to the list. Why? Although there are a number of reasons, amino acids plus glutathione are .

Glutathione is an antioxidant produced from other amino acids. Additionally, increasing glutathione levels through food containing those amino acids brings a host of health benefits. Whey protein is one way to do this.

Anti-aging health benefits of glutathione & amino acids from whey protein

Dr. Mercola says that whey can “increase your body’s stores of the antioxidant glutathione, or GSH.” Additionally, telomeres in your DNA are in every cell in your body, and they get shorter with age; glutathione increases the integrity of telomeres since free radicals (that cause DNA mutations) tend to damage them.

Glutathione keeps us healthy. GSH levels tend to drop in people who have oxidative stress-related health issues, such as diseases like AIDS or cancer. Patients get sicker after glutathione levels drop. Eating whey can help keep your glutathione levels up.

Glutathione supplements are NOT recommended, but precursors instead

You cannot ingest glutathione directly, however, for it is actually made inside your cells from the amino acid precursors: glycine, cystine, and glutamate. So no need to take glutathione supplements… just eat foods—like whey protein—that can help your body manufacture the antioxidant glutathione you need to fight the aging process and keep your telomeres intact.

Dr. Mercola states that biologists are now saying that lengthening telomeres actually may REVERSE aging, and a flurry of excitement is spinning around this concept in medical and research circles on antiaging methods.

Mercola states that the “best way to increase and maintain your GSH (glutathione) levels is to make sure your diet includes foods (such as animal foods and eggs) rich in the sulfur amino acids your cells need to synthesize glutathione. Whey protein is the easiest and most convenient way to do this.”

Just be sure, Mercola warns, that the whey protein you consume is not just any variety, because it needs to be “high quality and very carefully processed from grass fed organic cows to preserve the fragile amino acid precursors.”

It comes down to the quality of food that we are putting into our bodies, and ensuring that we take care of ourselves daily, in order to help reverse the aging process.

Reference:

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/02/27/top-7-foods-that-slow-your-aging.aspx

Table of Amino Acid Abbreviations

Students and teachers come together with terms like “Amino acid abbreviations” – but scientists use these abbreviated forms to refer to the 20+ names of amino acids as well.

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and they can be gotten from food. Before we get into the amino acid abbreviations you may want to know that there are two main types of amino acids (with a few exceptions)…

Essential and Non-essential amino acids

Essential amino acids does not mean they are “essential” as in necessary… it simply means that they can only be gotten from the food you eat so must be included through diet or dietary supplementation. Protein foods like meats (beef, chicken, pork, etc.) and eggs, as well as fish, are excellent sources of amino acids. Many meat-eating Americans actually eat an overabundance of protein compared with what the human body requires, which can lead to acidity (which leads to disease), cardiovascular and other diseases.

Non-essential amino acids are those that your body can produce naturally. Occasionally, someone is born with a deficiency in their body’s ability to produce the amino acids necessary for proper functioning, leading to diseases or disorders where people have trouble breaking down certain amino acids. An example of the latter is Maple Syrup Urine Disorder (MSUD) which is what newborn babies are screened for soon after birth.

There are 22 different amino acids in all (some of them semi-essential), but about 20 of them are more common. Their names, 3-letter, and 1-letter amino acid abbreviations follow.

Table of amino acid abbreviations

Amino Acid

3-Letter

1-Letter

Alanine

Ala

A

Arginine

Arg

R

Asparagine

Asn

N

Aspartic acid

Asp

D

Cysteine

Cys

C

Glutamic acid

Glu

E

Glutamine

Gln

Q

Glycine

Gly

G

Histidine

His

H

Isoleucine

Ile

I

Leucine

Leu

L

Lysine

Lys

K

Methionine

Met

M

Phenylalanine

Phe

F

Proline

Pro

P

Serine

Ser

S

Threonine

Thr

T

Tryptophan

Trp

W

Tyrosine

Tyr

Y

Valine

Val

V

Aspartic acid or Asparagine

Asx

B

Any amino acid

Xaa

X

Termination codon

TERM

For more information on amino acid abbreviations or more detailed information on amino acids in general, please see other articles at the Amino Acid Information Center. There are also many excellent resources on the Internet or in encyclopedias.

Reference:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Class/MLACourse/Modules/MolBioReview/iupac_aa_abbreviations.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid#In_human_nutrition

http://www.newbornscreening.info/Parents/aminoaciddisorders/MSUD.html

Can Autistic Children Benefit From Glutathione Supplements?

Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by failure to relate to others, impairment in communication, intolerance of change, and repetitive and ritualistic behaviour. Some studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder also have comparatively lower glutathione levels than the average developing child — about 20 to 40% lower. Also, their levels of oxidized glutathione are higher.

In a study conducted by Genetic Consultants of Dallas in Texas, researchers Janet Kern, David Geier, James Adams, Carolyn Garver, Tapan Audhya and Mark Geier tested whether glutathione supplements would benefit transsulfuration metabolites in autistic children.

Studies have shown that children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have irregularities in transsulfuration metabolites, which affects the production of glutathione. The researchers hope that by examining the effects of two commonly used supplements for autism, transdermal glutathione and oral glutathione,that their results would lead to a better comprehension of treatment in increasing glutathione levels.

Glutathione is a tripeptide that is made up of amino acids glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. A few of its many functions is DNA and protein synthesis and repair, transport of amino acids, and enzyme regulation. Because of it’s antioxidant properties, glutathione can prevent peroxides and free radicals from damaging important cells, making it important for immune functioning.

The Effects of Glutathione Supplements on Transsulfuration Metabolites

For the experiment, the researchers used 26 children with autism and divided them into two groups. One group would receive transdermal glutathione while the other group would receive oral glutathione. The treatment lasted over a period of eight weeks.  The researchers monitored side-effects and levels of glutathione, oxidized glutathione, taurine, sulfate, and cysteine.

At the end of the trial, Kern, et al., found that the oral glutathione group exhibited significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione. Both treatment groups also demonstrated significant increases in levels of plasma sulfate, cysteine and taurine. Oxidized glutathione showed little change in the groups.

Based on these results, the researchers believe that both forms of glutathione supplements, oral and transdermal, can benefit children with autism by increasing transsulfuration metabolites. They suggest additional studies be done in order to investigate the potential of glutathione supplements for management of autism symptoms.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628138/

Selenium and Selenocysteine and Health

Selenium is a nonmetal element on the periodic table (between sulfur and tellurium), while Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid. But when Selenium performs its biological functions, it does so through selenoproteins. Selenoproteins have selenium in them as the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (also called Sec), which is a cysteine analog. Selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon (one of three) in mRNA translation for non-selenoprotein genes. Selenocysteine is a proteinogenic amino acid.

Unlike the 20 regular amino acids (both essential and non-essential) selenocysteine is biosynthesized on its tRNA from the amino acid serine. Interestingly, there are 25 selenoproteins, like selenocysteine and selenomethionine (the latter of which replaces methionine amino acid residues, and is sometimes randomly substituted for methionine), which are encoded in our human genome.

Study on selenium and selenocysteine on health

Selenocysteine, according to S Kurokawa and MJ Berry, in their publication titled Selenium. Role of the essential metalloid in health discuss selenocysteine and its role in health. They say that selenocysteine (Sec) is described as “having stronger nucleophilic and electrophilic properties than cysteine, and Sec is present in the catalytic site of all selenoenzymes. Most selenoproteins, whose functions are known, are involved in redox systems and signaling pathways. However, several selenoproteins are not well characterized in terms of their function.”

Even though selenium can be considered toxic if the dose is too high, it is still required for health purposes in the bigger picture, selenocysteine notwithstanding. According to the researchers the selenium field (which includes the selenoproteins, and selenomethionine, etc.) has “grown dramatically in the last few decades, and research on selenium biology is providing extensive new information regarding its importance for human health.”

Selenocysteine, itself, is a building block of selenoproteins, contains selenium, and is present in several enzymes such as glutathione peroxidases, glycine reductases, methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1 (SEPX1), and so on). Glutathione and glycine are standard amino acids.

The biochemist, Theresa Stadtman (married to Earl R. Stadtman) at the National Institutes of Health, discovered selenocysteine.

Reference:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24470102

Cysteine – Anti-Aging Amino Acid?

Cysteine often called an anti-aging amino acid.  It appears to have many qualities that prevent or reverse aging. In fact, it has been said that aging may actually be a deficiency in cysteine.  

Cysteine is an anti-aging supporting anti-oxidant that protects cells by scavenging free radicals and chelating with heavy metals in order to keep the body clean of these ‘criminal’ elements that cause aging.

In fact, if you are into scientifically specific material, I highly suggest that you read Wulf Dröge’s article “Oxidative stress and aging: is aging a cysteine deficiency syndrome on the Royal Society Publishing website.

Cysteine – an anti-aging machine?

Cysteine, and its N-Acetyl Cysteine form, is also a precursor that provides another important anti-oxidant: glutathione. Glutathione is seen to be depleted in people who have many of the diseases frequently associated with old age. Cysteine provides a boost in glutathione levels even where it has been seen to be low in people with ailments such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, arthritis, diabetes, cancer and heart disease.  Cysteine is one of the anti-aging supporting building blocks required along with glutamine and glycine to make glutathione.   In fact, article the Washington Times called glutathione an anti-aging machine!

Cysteine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine are powerful detoxifiers – leading to a potential anti-aging effect

In a young, healthy system, cysteine is recirculated and works to remove toxins every day, bringing natural anti-aging health benefits on a daily basis.  It is when the system gets overloaded with heavy metals, poisons, radiation and free radicals of every kind that cysteine levels are seen to fall and gradually the body loses the ability to restock its storehouse of cysteine in order to prevent these toxins from causing aging.  Cysteine deficiency is a symptom of aging that can be rectified and the effects of aging and disease stopped through proper diet and the use of supplements.

N-Acetyl Cysteine form of cysteine is often used in emergency rooms to detoxify the liver if a patient has overdosed on Tylenol (acetaminophen) and is experiencing a liver failure. Obviously, there are numerous anti-aging effects of cysteine and its other forms.

Cysteine is absorbed through diet as well as the body’s anti-aging functions being able to make much of its own cysteine.  It is found in foods like poultry, eggs yolks, red peppers, garlic, onions and brussel sprouts. These are all known to be natural anti-aging type foods—and they all have cysteine! It is also easy to take through supplements.  If you are interested in anti-aging, maybe you should look into cysteine supplements to see if they might work for you!

The author of this story, Michelle Carraway, is a freelance contributor to National Nutraceuticals’ online news portals, which include Medicinal Mushroom Information Center, Amino Acid Information Center, Vancouver Health News and Today’s Word of Wisdom.  The opinions are the writer’s own and the owner and publisher of the site assume no responsibility for the accuracy of the content. Our articles are for informational, educational and entertainment purposes only. Please do your own due diligence, verify any health claims by doing additional research and consult your doctor before starting any supplementation program or making any lifestyle changes, including changes to your medication and supplementation.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC436956/

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/360/1464/2355.long