Tag Archives: depression

L-tyrosine for Treating Depression Symptoms

Alleviating depression can sometimes be daunting, even with pharmaceutical antidepressants prescribed by your doctor. But there are some natural things you can do to help with depression, too, says researchers. Tyrosine, also known as L-tyrosine, is a viable option as a natural-source antidepressant.

In fact, amino acids help play a role in many diseases, and can be used as a tool to predict such diseases since the biological compounds involved in the normal functioning of humans can be involved in the pathogenesis of these same diseases.

W Krzysciak at the Department of Medical Diagnostics at the Jagiellonian University in Poland, talks about aromatic amino acids like tyrosine, and that some of the diseases that are tied to amino acids include the diagnosing and treating of “social disorders, such as cancers; psychiatric disorders: depression, anxiety states, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorders; neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases; chronic kidney insufficiency or diabetes.”

L-Tyrosine for Depression

There are three aromatic amino acids commonly used to treat or diagnose disorders: tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. Where phenylalanine is a pain reliever, and tryptophan promotes sleep, it is tyrosine that acts as an antidepressant.

Dr. Greene (at DC Nutrition) also has information about L-tyrosine, and explains how this aromatic amino acid works to treat depression, saying, “Tyrosine is an essential amino acid that readily passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it is a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, better known as adrenalin. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the body’s sympathetic nervous system.”

L-tyrosine also relieves pain—both emotional pain and physical pain.

Dr. Greene says, “Tyrosine therapy is very useful in a variety of clinical situations. … An average human dose equivalent of 500 mg of tyrosine given intravenously reduces susceptibility to life-threatening ventricular fibrillation in experimental animals. More tyrosine is needed under stress, and tyrosine supplements prevent the stress-induced depletion of norepinephrine and can cure biochemical depression.” The exceptions would include psychosis (since antipsychotic drugs work by inhibiting L-tyrosine metabolism).

Larger doses of L-tyrosine may help reduce hunger as well as alleviate depression symptoms in obese patients. Low doses actually stimulate the appetite, however.

Dr. Greene says that even physicians at Harvard Medical School have used between 1-6 grams of tyrosine to effectively treat depression that was medication-resistant, saying, “The minimum daily requirement for adults of tyrosine and its precursor, phenylalanine, is 16 mg/kg a day or about 1000 mg total. Hence, 6 g is at least six times the minimum daily requirement.”

Please have a discussion with your doctor or naturopath to see if L-tyrosine might be able to help with depression.

References:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22175049

http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/Detail.CFM?RecordNumber=129

Food that Contain Cysteine and Methionine

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. When we eat protein foods our bodies break down the proteins into their respective amino acids, and then builds them back up into new proteins that help build muscle and organs and help run other functions in the body. The amino acids cysteine and methionine are needed by the body as well, and can be gotten from certain foods.

Benefits of methionine amino acid

Methionine is a sulfur-containing and proteinogenic amino acid. It provides sulfur for the hair, skin, and nails plus lowers cholesterol and provides protection for the kidneys. It can also prevent liver damage from taking too much acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Methionine can increase acidity in the urine, improve wound healing, and treat various liver disorders. Other uses for methionine include treating copper poisoning, alcoholism, depression, allergies, asthma, side effects from radiation, drug withdrawal, schizophrenia, and even Parkinson’s disease.

Benefits of cysteine amino acid

Cysteine helps protect the liver against long-term effects of alcohol use, specifically from the poison acetaldehyde (a by-product of alcohol metabolism), although it does not reduce drunkenness. Cysteine is also an antioxidant and therefore fights free radicals in the body. It can help with treating diabetes, colitis (an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), plus may treat cardiovascular disease, angina, flu, chronic bronchitis, inflammation, and osteoarthritis.

This sulfur-containing amino acid is synthesized only when methionine is in the body, therefore it is connected to methionine in this way and is why both cysteine and methionine are usually taken together through dietary supplementation. This is why it is important to eat foods that contain both cysteine and methionine so that they can complement one another for proper health benefits.

Foods high in cysteine and methionine

Methionine and cysteine work in tandem in the body, with cysteine particularly being dependent upon the presence of methionine to be produced and work in the body.

Food sources for both methionine and cysteine…

Methionine Cysteine
nuts
eggs
spinach
mushrooms
broccoli
potatoes
fish/tuna
meats*
seeds
almonds
parmesan cheese
brazil nuts
wheat germ
peanuts
chickpea
corn
pintos
lentils
medium-grained brown rice
milk
eggs
red peppers
onions
broccoli
oats
whey protein
meats*
cottage cheese
yogurt
ricotta
garlic
brussels sprouts
granola
wheat germ
sprouted lentils

*chicken, pork, turkey, duck, cured/dried or ground beef, bacon, in particular

Be sure to talk to your doctor before making any extreme or unusual modifications to your diet.

References:

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-42-methionine.aspx?activeingredientid=42&activeingredientname=methionine

http://altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/L-Cysteine.htm

http://nutrition.nutricia.com/conditions/sulphite-oxidase-deficiency

Nutrition and Depression: Amino Acids Can Improve Mood

We all know the importance of eating well. The link between an unhealthy diet and obesity, heart disease, and diabetes has led to bookshelves groaning with diet and nutrition books. But nutrition also affects our mental wellbeing. Are we getting enough amino acids to maintain our mental health?

A good diet is our best weapon in the war on disease. A healthy, well-balanced diet will also help our immune systems if we do become ill. This healthy diet will help combat some mental illnesses, too.

T. S. Sathyanarayana Rao, M. R. Asha, et al, explained the link between nutrition and depression in an article in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. They found that the diets of many people suffering from mental disorders are deficient in essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Supplements containing amino acids have been found to reduce symptoms of depression. Some amino acids control our moods—they cross the blood-brain barrier, carrying the chemical signals in our brains. But if we are not getting the right amount, our moods are affected.

Amino acid supplements treat mood disorders

The major symptoms of depression include increased sadness and anxiety, loss of appetite, and loss of interest in pleasurable activities. Deficiencies in neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and the amino acid GABA are often present patients with depression.

The amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine are often helpful in treating mood disorders. Indeed, tryptophan is converted to serotonin–the chemical which controls happiness.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, which means we must get it from our food. But people with poor diets do not get enough tryptophan.

Antidepressants and other drugs are very successful at treating depression. The researchers hope that nutritional supplements containing amino acids will work with these drugs, possibly leading to lower doses, and fewer side effects. They suggest daily supplements of amino acids to help achieve an antidepressant effect.

Nutritional neuroscience gives us our best shot of preventing and treating some mental illnesses.

Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2738337/

Tryptophan In Antidepressants to Cure Major Depressive Disorder?

Dr. AA Badway, from Cardiff Metropolitan University (Wales, UK), published an article which points to the essential amino acid tryptophan as a possible key to developing new antidepressant serotonin-boosting drugs to treat Major Depressive Disorder.

The article, published in July 2013, focused on Major Depressive Disorder, which is also known as clinical depression, unipolar depression, or recurrent depression. This mental disorder causes pervasive, persistent low moods, where the patient can no longer experience pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. It is usually also accompanied by low self-esteem.

Major Depressive Disorder is an extremely debilitating condition which greatly impacts quality of life. Major Depressive Disorder affects private and work life, impacting eating habits, sleeping habits, and general overall health. In some cases, the disorder has led to suicide.

Serotonin deficiency is one of the causes of Major Depressive Disorder. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between the brain and the body. Serotonin has many effects, including the regulation of moods.

Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder includes antidepressant medications which cause the synthesis of serotonin, and thus these medications have a mood stabilizing effect.

Serotonin is synthesized in the body by the amino acid tryptophan.

Tryptophan’s role in serotonin synthesis

Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids, which means we must obtain it from our food. Tryptophan is widely available in most proteins, like eggs, fish, meat, soybeans, and sesame seeds.

There are several factors which cause decreased levels of tryptophan, and which result in the serotonin deficiencies which could cause Major Depressive Disorder. One factor, accelerated degradation of tryptophan in the liver, is one of the factors which must be addressed when developing new antidepressants.

The article concluded that enhancing the availability of tryptophan to the brain will result in normalized levels of serotonin synthesis, and could form the basis for new antidepressant drugs.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23904410

L-Phenylalanine Benefts and Dangers

There is an old saying that nothing, in and of itself, is either good or bad. This is true also of the amino acid phenylalanine. What the pros or cons are of taking this amino acid depends on your situation. I will go over some of the dangers as well as the health benefits of this essential amino acid (amino acids are building blocks for protein). “Essential” means that you have to get this amino acid through your diet since your body cannot make it on its own.

Phenylalanine Dangers

The dangers of phenylalanine can include things like drinking sodas that contain artificial sweeteners like aspartame (Nutrasweet, Equal) that contain phenylalanine, but only if you have PKU. PKU is the genetic disorder phenylketonuria, which can cause brain damage or mental retardation or even seizures or death. Phenylalanine is found in protein foods such as meat (beef, chicken, pork, turkey, etc.), fish, eggs, and dairy, and can also be purchased as supplements.

Phenylalanine is not a health concern for healthy people who do not have PKU. However, aspartame, according to the Mayo Clinic, can cause “a rapid increase in the brain levels of phenylalanine” in large doses. They advise to use aspartame-containing products cautiously if you take medications like neuroleptics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or medicines that contain levodopa; avoid phenylalanine also if you have tardive dyskinesia, have a sleep disorder, or other mental health condition, including anxiety disorder.

All of that said, what are the benefits of phenylalanine?

L-Phenylalanine Benefits

The different forms include D- phenylalanine, L- phenylalanine, and DL- phenylalanine (50/50) in the forms of phenylalanine supplementation. In fact, all 22 common amino acids are provided by protein foods.

The University of Maryland Medical Center says that the “body changes phenylalanine into tyrosine, another amino acid that’s needed to make proteins, brain chemicals, including L-dopa, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones.”

Norepinephrine also affects mood, so phenylalanine is used to help treat depression. People who are deficient in this amino can experience a lack of energy, confusion, memory issues, lack of appetite, decreased alertness, and depression.

The University of Michigan Health System says that the form L-phenylalanine (LPA) can be converted to L-tyrosine, but also into “ L-dopa, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. LPA can also be converted (through a separate pathway) to phenylethylamine, a substance that occurs naturally in the brain and appears to elevate mood.”

Other uses for phenylalanine include treating:

Alcohol withdrawal
Chronic pain
Depression
Lower back pain
Osteoarthritis
Parkinson’s disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Vitiligo

Please check with your doctor before diagnosing or taking any phenylalanine supplements or making any serious changes to your lifestyle, including diet and protein foods that contain this amino acid.

References:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/phenylalanine/faq-20058361

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/phenylalanine

http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2895002#hn-2895002-uses

Health Benefits – Amino Acids

Amino acids provide certain health benefits to the human body. They are the building blocks of proteins and help the body’s metabolic functions. Of the 22 amino acids known to science, only 9 are considered to be essential to the human body, with some sources claiming the number is 10.

List of amino acids include Essential, Non-essential, and Conditionally Essential

To avoid amino acid deficiencies and to experience optimum health you must consume the essential amino acids since they cannot be produced by the body. Some medical professionals, like Naturopath Dr. Eliezer Ben-Joseph, who advises his patients and the public on alternative health matters through his Natural Solutions Radio show, suggest a list of 10 amino acids to include in your diet, which include: Arginine, Histidine, Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, and Leucine.

10 of the remaining 22 non-essential amino acids, which your body can manufacture on its own include Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine, Glutamine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Proline, Serine, and Tyrosine. Dr. Ben-Joseph suggests that if you are stressed or have a disease then these amino acids are “conditionally essential”: Arginine, Glycine, Cystine, Tyrosine, Proline, Glutamine, and Taurine.

Amino acids help build cells and repair tissues as well as create antibodies to ward off viruses and bacteria. Additionally, they help with enzymes and they body’s hormonal system. Dr. Ben-Joseph suggests these 8 amino acids provide these health benefits:

Tryptophan: is a natural relaxant, alleviates insomnia, and reduces anxiety/depression

Lysene: helps the body absorb calcium

Methionine: supplies sulfur to help hair, nails, and skin

Histidine: repairs tissue, good for digestion/ulcers, blood pressure, nerves, sexual function

Phenylalanine: aids the brain to produce Norepinephrine, which helps the brain and nerve cells

Valine: calms emotions, helps with mental vigor and coordination of the muscles

Leucine & Isoleucine: helps the body manufacture other necessary biochemical components

You can never be certain that you are getting enough of the aminoc acids that your body needs.  It may be a good idea to incorporate amino acid dietary supplements in your health regimen.  Each one serves a different function so it is important to ensure your body obtains the necessary nutrients.  As with anything else, be sure to check with your doctor before taking amino acid supplements or any dietary supplements.

References:

http://naturalsolutionsradio.com/blog/natural-solutions-radio/amino-acids

http://naturalsolutionsradio.com/blog/articles/references/minerals-amino-acids-chart

Low Phenylalanine Diet and Cancer Patients

More information on the incredibly complex nature of cancer. Diets which limit tumor growth in animal models did not have the same positive effect on humans in a European pilot study. Diets without enough protein (that provide amino acids) like junk food that have low tyrosine and low phenylalanine were studied…

Advanced cancer is cancer which has spread, or metastasized, and may no longer be responding to treatment. Some cancers, such as brain cancers, are considered advanced cancer even if they haven’t spread. The cancer is not curable at this stage.

There are some treatment options, however, which focus on controlling the cancer and managing cancer symptoms, so the patient can feel as good as possible for as long as possible. Limiting the spread of cancer is one of the goals, including controlling tumor growth.

Low tyrosine and low phenylalanine diets

Researchers M Harvie, I Campbell, et al, with the University Department of Medical Oncology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK, hoped there would be a correlation between the results of an animal trial and a human trial in regards to low tyrosine and low phenylalanine.

A low tyrosine and low phenylalanine diet was successful in limiting tumor growth in animal models. These are both amino acids. Tyrosine is made in the body from phenylalanine, and is crucial to general metabolism. It has a strong antidepressant effect.

The researchers developed a pilot study to test the low tyrosine and low phenylalanine diet, which was offered to human volunteers with advanced cancer. Three patients with metastatic melanoma and three patients with metastatic breast cancer agreed to try the diet for one month.

Results were disappointing. All patients experienced negative side effects. They reported increased levels of anxiety and depression due to the low tyrosine diet. Some patients also lost weight. There was a slight increase in white cell counts, but not significantly.

The researchers concluded that low tyrosine and low phenylalanine diets are not a viable treatment for people with advanced cancer.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12028515

L-glutamine Amino Acid and Depression

Is there a link between L-glutamine and depression?  Definitely!  It certainly appears that L-glutamine is a vital amino acid that increases positive outlook and relieves depression.  

L-glutamine is one of the major energy sources for the brain and without enough L-glutamine the brain relies on glucose for fuel which is why we crave sugar when we are stressed or sad.  Without enough fuel to function, the brain slumps and the result is a decrease in mental function, a sense of ‘the blues’ and a fundamental lack of motivation.

L-glutamine provides a healthy fuel for the whole body, not just the brain. Too much glucose can cause obesity, diabetes and many other diseases including cancers. Illness contributes to depression as well and it is important to keep the body healthy in order for the mind to be happy.  L-glutamine is a better fuel in this respect then glucose.

Connection between L-glutamine and depression may be in glucose balance

L-glutamine also helps relieve depression by being a more sustained, long burning fuel then glucose.  Glucose gives a large surge of energy that is inevitably followed by a crash that leaves the body craving more sugar and feeling depressed.  The result of this is addictive behaviour, a constant need to increase the amount of sugar ingested and that results in more feelings of depression.

Stress is also a frequent culprit for causes of depression.  Constant stress causes wear and tear on the whole body as a system, including the brain.  Stress also releases many hormones that result in feelings of unhappiness that can lead to long term depression. In order to heal from stress, the body needs to heal the damage done to its proteins and all of these damaged proteins can be synthesized from L-glutamine.  By taking L-glutamine to heal the damage caused by stress you can also prevent or help to recover from depression.

L-glutamine is a precursor to GABA – another relaxing amino acid

L-glutamine also enhances nervous system functions and is a precursor to the amino acid GABA.  GABA is an anxiety quelling amino acid and increased levels of GABA can help to prevent the stress from too much worry.  Worry can quickly lead to feelings of helplessness and depression.  L-glutamine helps by giving your body the building blocks to replenish its supply of GABA and gives the sense of competency to deal with anxiety and depression.

L-glutamine can be found in many high protein foods such as chicken, fish, beef, beans, dairy products, cabbage and beets. It can also be very useful to use a supplement to be sure to get all the L-glutamine you need to recover or prevent depression.

The author of this story, Michelle Carraway, is a freelance contributor to National Nutraceuticals’ online news portals, which include Medicinal Mushroom Information Center, Amino Acid Information Center, Vancouver Health News and Today’s Word of Wisdom.  The opinions are the writer’s own and the owner and publisher of the site assume no responsibility for the accuracy of the content. Our articles are for informational, educational and entertainment purposes only. Please do your own due diligence, verify any health claims by doing additional research and consult your doctor before starting any supplementation program or making any lifestyle changes, including changes to your medication and supplementation.

Sources:

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23031251

http://www.livestrong.com/article/477074-glutamine-depression/

http://www.sundancevideoonline.com/glutamine.html

http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/treatments/nutraceutical/precursor-amino-acid-therapy