Tag Archives: autism

What are Carnitine and Carnosine Amino Acids Used for?

There are two amino acids that often get mixed up: carnitine and carnosine. What are they and how do they differ? Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Normally, when you eat proteins your body breaks them down into their basic units, called amino acids. Then your body puts them back together in a new way to build protein in your body, such as muscles and organs, and it is used for other bodily functions as well.

Carnitine is an essential amino acid, meaning that your body cannot produce it on its own, so it must be gotten through diet, specifically from protein foods (meats, fish, and eggs have all 22 common amino acids), but can also be taken as an amino acid supplement.

Carnosine is a non-essential amino acid, which means that your body produces it on its own; therefore, it is not usually needed as a supplement.

Both carnitine and carnosine can be taken as supplements, but be careful doing so without checking with your doctor (whether separately or together) first since they can have side effects, especially if you are taking certain medications. Normal amounts of carnitine and carnosine that are gotten through food do not apply.

Carnitine and carnosine are usually connected with other amino acids:

Carnitine is synthesized from the amino acids methionine and lysine.
Carnosine is made from the amino acids histidine and alanine.

Carnitine and carnosine health benefits

Carnitine helps the body burn fat by transporting fatty acids, and it also flushes toxins out of the mitochondria within cells. Carnitine is found in concentrations within the cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles. It also could possibly aid in reducing symptoms of people with an overactive thyroid. People who have diabetic neuropathy may also find some pain relief, thanks to carnitine.

Carnosine works differently than carnitine. In effect, it is an antioxidant. It functions within the brain, nervous system, and skeletal muscles. Interestingly, this amino acid can help remove excess zinc and copper out of the body in a process known as chelation. It may also help with cataracts and speed up wound healing.

Carnitine and carnosine are complimentary for diseases

Carnitine and carnosine both have anti-aging effects, plus reduces the speed of memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) age-related patients.

Another area is autism, where the carnitine and carnosine both function to help autism as an alternative treatment. When comparing these two amino acids for autism treatment, Michael Chez, M.D., et al. (Nov 2002 Journal of Child Neurology) and Dan Rossignol, M.D., (Oct 2009 Clinical Psychiatry), reported that carnitine got a grade “B” for improving symptoms of autism, while carnosine got a grade “C” for improving communication and behavior.

These two amino acids also help improve cardiovascular function, but they do so in different ways. Carnitine reduces the symptoms of heart angina and peripheral vascular disease. Carnosine reduces the risk for developing atherosclerosis plus can help reduce cholesterol.

An important note: some physicians believe people should avoid taking D-carnitine because it can interfere with L-carnitine, which is naturally found in the body. Because of this, you should ask your physician before taking both carnitine and carnosine as supplements.

Reference:

http://www.livestrong.com/article/493759-carnosine-vs-carnitine/

Can Autistic Children Benefit From Glutathione Supplements?

Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by failure to relate to others, impairment in communication, intolerance of change, and repetitive and ritualistic behaviour. Some studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder also have comparatively lower glutathione levels than the average developing child — about 20 to 40% lower. Also, their levels of oxidized glutathione are higher.

In a study conducted by Genetic Consultants of Dallas in Texas, researchers Janet Kern, David Geier, James Adams, Carolyn Garver, Tapan Audhya and Mark Geier tested whether glutathione supplements would benefit transsulfuration metabolites in autistic children.

Studies have shown that children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have irregularities in transsulfuration metabolites, which affects the production of glutathione. The researchers hope that by examining the effects of two commonly used supplements for autism, transdermal glutathione and oral glutathione,that their results would lead to a better comprehension of treatment in increasing glutathione levels.

Glutathione is a tripeptide that is made up of amino acids glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. A few of its many functions is DNA and protein synthesis and repair, transport of amino acids, and enzyme regulation. Because of it’s antioxidant properties, glutathione can prevent peroxides and free radicals from damaging important cells, making it important for immune functioning.

The Effects of Glutathione Supplements on Transsulfuration Metabolites

For the experiment, the researchers used 26 children with autism and divided them into two groups. One group would receive transdermal glutathione while the other group would receive oral glutathione. The treatment lasted over a period of eight weeks.  The researchers monitored side-effects and levels of glutathione, oxidized glutathione, taurine, sulfate, and cysteine.

At the end of the trial, Kern, et al., found that the oral glutathione group exhibited significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione. Both treatment groups also demonstrated significant increases in levels of plasma sulfate, cysteine and taurine. Oxidized glutathione showed little change in the groups.

Based on these results, the researchers believe that both forms of glutathione supplements, oral and transdermal, can benefit children with autism by increasing transsulfuration metabolites. They suggest additional studies be done in order to investigate the potential of glutathione supplements for management of autism symptoms.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628138/