Tag Archives: 200 amino acids

How Many Amino Acids are there – 20, 22, or 200?

For a while it was thought that there were only 20 amino acids, and many websites still reflect this today, but in fact, a couple of new aminos were discovered making a total of 22 amino acids. But how many amino acids are there really?

The real question is how many amino acids exist beyond the 22 we know of SO FAR, and what about other types of amino acids? The reality is that amino acids, which are the basic building blocks of the body, are in abundance within the body. They are sources of energy such as carbohydrates and fats, except that amino acids contain nitrogen (N); because of this they play a role in forming muscles, tissues, organs, skin, and even hair.

There are 20 amino acids in the our standard genetic code, and the additional 2 aminos are outside this realm. These are comprised of the amino acids selenocysteine and pyrrolysine. These amino acids were discovered only about three decades and two decades ago respectively.

Nine essential amino acids act as the precursors to neurotransmitters in the brain and enzymes that help with bodily functions like digestion. These  amino acids are essential for health, and regulate the body’s metabolic processes. There are hormones that are made up of amino acids, antibodies too, so they affect the immune system. Plus they transport oxygen and nutrients in the body.

How Many Kinds of Amino Acids are there?

Different amino acids have different functions. How many amino acids, types, or kinds that exist depend on whether they are:

Essential – 9
Non-essential – 13

How Many Essential Amino Acids Are There?

How many amino acids are “essential” (meaning you must get them from food)? They are listed as: histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.

Several essential amino acids are available in supplement mixes as BCAAs, or branch chain amino acids. The specific aminos included are often leucine, isoleucine, and valine. You can get BCAA powders from Beamzen.

How Many Amino Acids are Non-Essential

How many amino acids are “non-essential” (meaning your body makes them)? These are listed as: arginine, alanine, asparagine, aspartate (aspartic acid), cysteine, glutamate (glutamic acid), glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine (interchangeable with phenylalanine), selenocysteine, and pyrrolysine. Although pyrrolysine is not used by humans.

Semi-Essential Amino Acids

However, how many amino acids from one of the above groups are actually conditional or “semi-essential” amino acids? These are: arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, serine, tyrosine.

There are 22 Amino Acids

These above are the 20 more well-known amino acids; however, just how many amino acids exist actually are counted as being over 200 in numbers, but the 22 proteinogenic amino acids are the ones that are commonly known.

These more commonly known aminos can be found in food (all meat such as beef, pork, chicken, seafood, and even eggs are excellent sources of all 22 amino acids). They can also be bought as amino acid supplements individually or as a complex of many in balanced forms for their health benefits.

But haven’t we missed some? What about ornithine and citrulline? Just as phenylalanine and tyrosine are interchangeable, so are ornithine, citrulline, and arginine. Although they have different chemical structures, they have similar benefits and effects on the body and can be interchanged in the diet. For example, both arginine and citrulline act to increase nitric oxide in the body.

How many amino acids have you had in your diet today?

Recommended Daily Intakes for Essential Aminos

Here are the recommended daily intakes in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. These recommendations are made by the World Health Organization. Here is an in depth guide from the WHO on the calculations behind the recommended daily intakes.

  • Valine: 26mg per kg
  • Tyrptophan: 4mg per kg
  • Threonine: 15mg per kg
  • Phenylalanine and Tyrosine: 25mg per kg
  • Methionine and Cysteine: 15mg per kg
  • Lysine: 30mg per kg
  • Leucine: 39mg per kg
  • Isoleucine: 29mg per kg
  • Histidine: 10mg per kg


Wikipedia’s Table of Amino Acids

Can Taurine Protect The Liver From Environmental Damage And Disease?

A Japanese study has shown that treatment with taurine can protect against xenobiotics-induced liver damages. Could this lead to a new treatment for cirrhosis and other forms of liver disease?

There are over 100 forms of liver disease, some of which lead to cirrhosis. Cirrhosis, a condition where the liver is permanently damaged by scarring, is the end form of many liver diseases.  The damaged cirrhotic liver can’t remove toxins, which accumulate in the blood and can lead to death. The overall mortality rate for drug-induced liver injury is about 5%.

Some liver diseases, including cirrhosis, are caused by xenobiotics, which are drugs and environmental chemicals. Such drugs can include acetaminophen, a very common pain reliever found in paracetamol. The risk is much higher in illegal drugs synthesized from bromobenzene, such as PCP.

The liver is particularly prone to xenobiotics-induced injury because of its role in filtering and removing toxins.

Can the liver be protected by taurine?

A study by T Miyazaki and Y Matsuzaki, from Tokyo Medical University, Japan, investigated the protective effects of the amino acid taurine.

Taurine has many functions, and is present in most of our tissues. It’s found throughout our bodies, particularly in our central nervous system, skeletal muscle, heart, and liver.

We produce taurine from food, especially foods high in B6, such as seafood. Taurine is biosynthesized in the liver. It has even been shown to prevent liver disease and cirrhosis in rats.

Taurine affects human livers, too. People with liver disease often have low levels of taurine in their hepatic system. And serious liver damages were observed in the pericentral region of the liver in patients with severely depleted liver taurine levels.

The study showed that taurine treatment was a useful agent for xenobiotics-induced liver damages.

The risk for developing xenobiotics-induced injury will be greatly reduced if people ensure they follow all directions on packages, follow guidelines for safe alcohol consumption, and avoid illegal drugs.