Inflammation in the body is like fire in the veins! But can inflammation be “cooled off” by the amino acids cysteine, glycine, and histidine? Inflammation is characterized as the bodily response of vascular tissues to unsafe stimuli.
Such stimuli may include pathogens, irritants or damaged cells. Symptoms can vary in cases of inflammation, but the most common signs are redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function in the affected area.
Because inflammation is a discomfort that affects a majority of the population at one time or another, researchers at Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan set out to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of the amino acids cysteine, glycine and histidine.
Researchers S. Hasegawa, et al., report that nuclear factor-kappa B is a system that regulates endothelial activation. They explain that nuclear factor-kappa B is induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vascular endothelial cells, and it is this process that can lead to inflammation and disorders such as atherosclerosis.
The researchers wanted to test the anti-inflammatory effects in coronary endothelial cells since results from previous studies ended inconclusively. They hypothesize that amino acids cysteine, glycine and histidine would produce inhibitory effects on nuclear factor-kappa B activation in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.
The effect of amino acids cysteine, glycine and histidine on inflammation in endothelial cells
For the study Hasegawa et al. took human coronary arterial endothelial cell cultures and treated them with either alanine, cysteine, glycine and histidine amino acids. They stimulated the cultures with 2 ng/mL of tumour necrosis factor-alpha before taking out nuclear extracts to determine their concentrations of proteins and nuclear factor-kappa B.
They found that without treatment, the cultures showed significant activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. But with pretreatment of cysteine, glycine and histidine, nuclear factor-kappa B activation was inhibited significantly in the coronary endothelial cells. Alanine did not have an effect on the activation, demonstrating no anti-inflammatory properties.
Overall, cysteine showed the most inhibiting effects out of the tested amino acids at any concentration. They also found that the amino acids inhibited E-selectin expression, a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in inflammation.
Based on these results, the researchers conclude that cysteine, glycine and histidine can help reduce inflammation to the endothelial cells.