Category Archives: Carnitine

How Many Amino Acids are there – 20, 22, or 200?

For a while it was thought that there were only 20 amino acids, and many websites still reflect this today, but in fact, a couple of new aminos were discovered making a total of 22 amino acids. But how many amino acids are there really?

The real question is how many amino acids exist beyond the 22 we know of SO FAR, and what about other types of amino acids? The reality is that amino acids, which are the basic building blocks of the body, are in abundance within the body. They are sources of energy such as carbohydrates and fats, except that amino acids contain nitrogen (N); because of this they play a role in forming muscles, tissues, organs, skin, and even hair.

There are 20 amino acids in the our standard genetic code, and the additional 2 aminos are outside this realm. These are comprised of the amino acids selenocysteine and pyrrolysine. These amino acids were discovered only about three decades and two decades ago respectively.

Nine essential amino acids act as the precursors to neurotransmitters in the brain and enzymes that help with bodily functions like digestion. These  amino acids are essential for health, and regulate the body’s metabolic processes. There are hormones that are made up of amino acids, antibodies too, so they affect the immune system. Plus they transport oxygen and nutrients in the body.

How Many Kinds of Amino Acids are there?

Different amino acids have different functions. How many amino acids, types, or kinds that exist depend on whether they are:

Essential – 9
Non-essential – 13

How Many Essential Amino Acids Are There?

How many amino acids are “essential” (meaning you must get them from food)? They are listed as: histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.

Several essential amino acids are available in supplement mixes as BCAAs, or branch chain amino acids. The specific aminos included are often leucine, isoleucine, and valine. You can get BCAA powders from Beamzen.

How Many Amino Acids are Non-Essential

How many amino acids are “non-essential” (meaning your body makes them)? These are listed as: arginine, alanine, asparagine, aspartate (aspartic acid), cysteine, glutamate (glutamic acid), glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine (interchangeable with phenylalanine), selenocysteine, and pyrrolysine. Although pyrrolysine is not used by humans.

Semi-Essential Amino Acids

However, how many amino acids from one of the above groups are actually conditional or “semi-essential” amino acids? These are: arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, serine, tyrosine.

There are 22 Amino Acids

These above are the 20 more well-known amino acids; however, just how many amino acids exist actually are counted as being over 200 in numbers, but the 22 proteinogenic amino acids are the ones that are commonly known.

These more commonly known aminos can be found in food (all meat such as beef, pork, chicken, seafood, and even eggs are excellent sources of all 22 amino acids). They can also be bought as amino acid supplements individually or as a complex of many in balanced forms for their health benefits.

But haven’t we missed some? What about ornithine and citrulline? Just as phenylalanine and tyrosine are interchangeable, so are ornithine, citrulline, and arginine. Although they have different chemical structures, they have similar benefits and effects on the body and can be interchanged in the diet. For example, both arginine and citrulline act to increase nitric oxide in the body.

How many amino acids have you had in your diet today?

Recommended Daily Intakes for Essential Aminos

Here are the recommended daily intakes in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. These recommendations are made by the World Health Organization. Here is an in depth guide from the WHO on the calculations behind the recommended daily intakes.

  • Valine: 26mg per kg
  • Tyrptophan: 4mg per kg
  • Threonine: 15mg per kg
  • Phenylalanine and Tyrosine: 25mg per kg
  • Methionine and Cysteine: 15mg per kg
  • Lysine: 30mg per kg
  • Leucine: 39mg per kg
  • Isoleucine: 29mg per kg
  • Histidine: 10mg per kg

Wikipedia’s Table of Amino Acids

How Does Methionine Affect Bone Fractures?

According to previous studies, an elevated level of the protein amino acid homocysteine (in a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia) can hinder fracture healing. Because the essential amino acid methionine is a precursor of homocysteine and an important component in the biosynthesis of cysteine, researchers at the University of Saarland in Germany investigated if excess levels of methionine would also affect rate of bone repair.

Methionine also plays a key part in the biosynthesis of carnitine, taurine, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids. An error in the conversion of methionine can lead to atherosclerosis, when fatty materials accumulate on artery walls and can cause inflammation.

For the experiment, researchers Joerg Holstein et al. divided 25 mice into two groups. One group received a diet high in methionine while the other group received a control diet that was equivalent in calories. Three weeks after methionine supplementation, the researchers anesthetized the mice using ketamine and xylazine.

They then fractured the right femur of each mouse. Four weeks after fracture, the researchers analyzed the healing process using histomorphometry and biomechanical testing. Blood samples were also taken to determine level of serum homocysteine.

The effect of amino acid methionine on bone healing

At the end of the study, Holstein, et al., found an increased level of homocysteine in the methionine group when compared to the control. Results from biomechanical testing showed no significant difference between the groups in bending stiffness of the healed bones. Results from histomorphometry analyses also did not show any significant difference between the two groups in size or tissue composition of the callus.

Based on these findings, the researchers conclude that excess methionine intake does not have a significant effect on bone repair in mice.

They further suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia does not pose a risk for inhibited fracture healing and that dietary methionine may even help regulate osteoblasts, cells that are responsible for bone formation.

They believe that additional testing will reveal the role methionine plays in bone healing.


Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Grade-A Energy Producer

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (also called N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine) is one of the body’s basic building blocks, an amino acid that is involved in the production of energy, good heart and brain function, muscle movement, the metabolism of cells and many other bodily processes.

The body is capable of converting Acetyl-L-Carnitine into the closely related L-Carnitine, a substance that turns body fat into energy. It is also able to convert in the other direction. Your body makes both of these substances in the liver and kidneys, and they are packed away for future use at various sites around the body: in skeletal muscles, brain, heart and sperm, for instance. L-Carnitine, which sometimes is less available as a nutrient than Acetyl-L-Carnitine, is very important in the body, and having a more accessible version around helps with basic bodily function.

As a supplement, this amino acid reacts on the mitochondria in the cells of the human body. Because they are so vitally involved in the production of energy, boosting their production may lend an overall increase to physical and mental health.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine also has great potential as a treatment of many forms of disease. When taken in greater amounts than normally produced in the body, according to the Internet Drug Index, it has shown itself possibly effective against a wide variety of symptoms. It might be beneficial in loss of cognitive function and loss of memory in the elderly (such as those resulting from Alzheimer’s Disease or dimentia), for instance, as well as helping to rehabilitate stroke victims. It may also help with diabetes-induced nerve pain, male infertility and age-related testosterone issues.

Overall, this vital amino acid is very important to the body’s proper function, and when used in larger doses, may even provide a preventative against many symptoms of age and poor health. To read more about Acetyl-L-Carnitine, head to Dr. Weil’s Vitamin Library.

Part 1: Eating Insects for Your Daily Amino Acids?

Pull up a chair and have a plate of bugs for breakfast?! Although this is not unrealistic or uncommon in most of the world, entomophagy (eating insects for food) brings a feeling of disgust for many in western societies, and a sourpuss face along with it! But eating insects is common to animals (insectivores), even other insects, as well as humans, and for good reasons.

Eating insects of many kinds brings to light the simple fact that they are full of protein and nutrition, and help sustain life. Vitamins, minerals, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, oleic acid, and amino acids are only part of the full story.

In fact, bugs may wind up being a part of the human diet in the future, as it is currently in many countries, and has been prehistorically commonplace for hominids, hominins (human line), throughout time.

The big questions about eating insects include…

What amino acids are present in bugs and are they available to the human body? Exactly what nutritional content is covered for human requirements by consuming edible insects? Eating insects may be good for you, but do they taste good?

According to my daughter, who went to Peru with my mom and some friends and ate a large white grub that is a common to the area for consumption, it tasted lovely, just like an almond. She said, “It tasted good!” However, she also nearly gagged and spit it out. Why? The texture was “too mushy,” she said. The last thing she was thinking about was the amino acid content of the grub! *smiles*

Eating insects raw, such as her raw grub from Peru, are not always necessary. Most people around the world eat them raw as well as roasted, baked, smoked, fried, boiled in salted water, and dried or sun-dried. Of course, most Americans have heard of chocolate covered ants or grasshoppers as a delicacy dessert (or given as a joke, although is a serious meal in other countries). Each method of preparation makes eating insects a different experience, taste, texture, and can be the difference between it tasting good or wanting to spit it out on the ground from whence it came.

Who wants to eat bugs anyway? Lots of people, especially considering they are as easy to scavenge as they are to grow and raise for food, and is easier than gardening or raising small livestock. It is also cheaper than buying food at the grocery store, although bugs-on-a-stick (or loose) of many varieties can be purchased at local markets in many countries, like is often seen in China or Thailand.

The fact is that many grubs, larvae, grasshoppers, caterpillars, termites, palm weevils, mealworms, and other bugs are packed with nutrition such as potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous, zinc, manganese, and copper according to the FAO. Eating insects can also supply you with necessary iron and amino acids like lysine, things that vegans and vegetarians are often deficient in.

CONTININUE READING Part 2: Eating Insects for Your Daily Amino Acids?


L-Carnitine Supplement Could Treat Heart Disease

An animal study has identified a potential new therapeutic option for treating cardiac fibrosis: L-carnitine supplementation. Could L-carnitine prevent the development of heart failure?

Researchers (Y Omori, T Ohtani, et al), at the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, developed an animal study to analyze potential new treatments for heart failure—specifically heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in hypertensive heart disease.

Hypertensive heart disease is caused by hypertension, or high blood pressure. Hypertensive heart disease with heart failure is a serious condition, which can lead to ischemic heart disease and heart attacks. Heart disease is leading cause of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.

The researchers were aware that prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is poor. They knew that hypertension causes decreased free-carnitine levels in the heart. Would L-carnitine supplements have an effect?

Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid, synthesized in the human body from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Carnitine is also found in food, especially red meat and dairy products. L-carnitine is simply the biologically-active form of carnitine.

Carnitine has a substantial antioxidant effect, which greatly benefits health by preventing free radical damage. The researchers hoped that the carnitine supplements would also combat hypertension.

L-carnitine treatment and heart failure study

Rats were given a high-salt diet, which models hypertensive heart failure. Their free carnitine levels were measured, and were found to be low in the left ventricle of the heart. The rats were then given L-carnitine supplements.

This L-carnitine treatment had a significant impact. It restored the levels of carnitine in the chambers of the heart, and even reversed fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is a thickening of the heart valves, which is often found in heart failure.

The affect L-carnitine has on reversing, or thinning, the level of cardiac fibrosis means that L-carnitine could become a therapeutic option for treating hypertensive heart disease in the future.


Can Carnitine Help Enhance Exercise Performance?

Feel like your workouts aren’t going so well? Perhaps carnitine supplements may be of use to reach your fitness goals. 

The compound carnitine is synthesized from amino acids lysine and methionine. Its role is to transport fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondria to help break down lipids and fats in order to create metabolic energy. The majority of carnitine is found in skeletal muscle, helping maintain co-enzyme A by creating acetylcarnitine during high intensity exercise.

In a study done by Maastricht University in the Netherlands, researchers Benjamin Wall, Francis Stephens, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Kanagaraj Marimuthu, Ian Macdonald and Paul Greenhaff hypothesized that chronic ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrates would increase skeletal muscle total carnitine content in healthy participants, generating various positive metabolic effects of muscle carnitine loading that would lead to an improvement in high intensity exercise performance.

For the double-blind experiment, 14 healthy, athletic male participants were used. Two weeks before the start of the trial, the participants were pre-tested for maximal oxygen consumption so individual exercises could be determined to use 50% and 80% of their maximal oxygen uptake.

For the trial phase, the subjects were to undergo the experimental protocol on three occasions, 12 weeks apart. Blood samples were collected to assess blood glucose, serum insulin and plasma total cholesterol concentration. The participants exercised for 30 mins on a cycle ergometer at 50% maximal oxygen intensity, followed by 30 mins of exercise at 80% maximal oxygen consumption. Immediately after the exercises, the participants performed a 30-min work output performance test to measure endurance and performance.

After the first experimental visit, the participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The control group consumed 700 mL of a beverage containing 80 grams of carbohydrate polymer twice daily for 168 days.

The experimental group consumed the same amount of beverage but with an additional 2 grams of L-carnitine tartrate, at the same frequency. On every visit, the same exercise protocol was conducted as the first visit. Blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were also collected from the participants throughout.

The effect of L-carnitine on muscle total carnitine content and exercise performance

After evaluating the data, the researchers found that after 24 weeks muscle total carnitine content was 30% more in the carnitine group than the control, meaning a 21% increase from baseline.

This is the first study conducted that demonstrated muscle carnitine content can be increased by dietary intake in humans. It also showed carnitine plays a role in the fuel metabolism of skeletal muscle, dependent on intensity of exercise.

The researchers also found that work output was 35% greater for the carnitine group compared to the control, by the end of the trial. This represented a 11% increase from baseline measures. By increasing muscle total carnitine content, muscle carbohydrate use is reduced during low intensity exercise. For high intensity exercise, muscle carnitine reduces muscle anaerobic energy due to its enhanced generation of glycolytic, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and mitochondrial flux.

Working as a combination, these metabolic effects lead to a reduced perceived effort but increased output, helping improve exercise performance.


Egg Protein Powder for Your Essential Amino Acids – the Superior Choice?

Egg protein powder has been on the market for years and although not as popular as whey protein, it should be a consideration for those who wish to get a near perfect protein with all the essential amino acids. Why? The pattern in the egg whites, the egg protein nearly matches human growth.

Even without the egg yolk to supplement the body with cholesterol and fats, the protein of the egg provides some amazing nutrient potential. A top quality egg protein powder, can provide a good source of vitamins A, B, D and E.

Egg white protein digests at a moderate pace. It also possesses a high level of sulfur which is essential to various hormonal pathways within the body which in turn, leads to increased muscle mass.

Egg white protein doesn’t cause nearly the problems of bloating as whey protein, and contains all the essential amino acids, unlike hemp or soy.  Egg protein possesses a bland to slightly salty taste and also can easily be made into custom mixes in a shaker or blender.

Of course there is a negative to every protein powder. All this egg protein goodness doesn’t come cheap and consumers should be wary of buying low-grade egg protein powders.

Cheaper products from factory-farmed eggs should be avoided, for chickens in “chicken factories” often live in polluted environments that may even be toxic.  Chickens and their eggs can carry diseases such as salmonella and infections. In addition, factory-farmed eggs may include low levels of antibiotics, or hormones, or other pharmaceuticals.

Is egg protein powder the superior alternative for amino acids?

Both whey and egg protein powders have all the essential amino acids, and if a person doesn’t mind consuming a little cholesterol at a lower price, whey protein is probably the standard from which all other protein powders are judged from.

Another popular plant based protein powder could be hemp. It is low in a couple of essential amino acids, particularly lysine.  But, hemp is also generally considered a superfood. It is high also in essential fatty acids which may sound bad, but actually is really good because of the high amount of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids that many people are deficient in.

Soy protein powder also lacks two essential amino acids in sufficient quantities—methionine and lysine, which are particularly low. For overweight women, especially, soy powder may be great for soy is known for speeding up thyroid function which may be great for those who wish to shed a few pounds while reducing cholesterol. Soy protein powders also may be hugely beneficial for menopausal women, for the isoflavones can reduce hot flashes.

Having made all these comparisons in a nutshell, if you are looking for a zero-cholesterol, animal-based protein powder with all the essential amino acids, egg protein powder is tough to beat for many consumers today.


Amino Acids Among Anti-Aging Bio-Molecules

Amino acids are among a number of specific types of bio-molecules that help restrict the aging process. Antiaging creams and lotions and supplements are only a few ways to deal with wrinkles and skin issues from a topical advantage, but what about the rest of the body? Anti-aging mechanisms, healing and immunity, skin (our largest organ), and other biological processes require an internal process at the cellular level for really slowing the aging process.

A review by P Dabhade and S Kotwal from the University Department of Biochemistry, RTM Nagpur University, in India wrote a publication titled: Tackling the aging process with bio-molecules: a possible role for caloric restriction, food-derived nutrients, vitamins, amino acids, peptides, and minerals.

The researchers said that “Aging is a multifactorial process leading to general deterioration in many tissues and organs, accompanied by an increased incidence and severity of a wide variety of chronic, incurable, and often fatal diseases” and that these therapies “include potential dietary interventions, adherence to nutrition, hormonal and cell-based therapies, genetic manipulations, and anti-aging supplements or nutrients.” Amino acids are among them.

Amino acids help with anti-aging at the cellular level

True healing comes from within, and the anti-aging process is no different. The body regenerates at the cellular level, so aiding the body in fundamental ways is crucial to keeping the body youthful. This can mean environmental changes we can control, like one’s diet, includes eating nutrient-rich foods (many people also claim their skin was the most obvious change they noticed when they ate a raw vegan diet because the skin hydrates from underneath).

Among the supplements and nutrients that are listed for anti-aging processes includes, vitamins, minerals, peptides, as well as amino acids. Protein foods like meats can provide all 22 amino acids since aminos are the building blocks of protein. Eating whey protein and eggs provide essential amino acids to the body, but extending the lifespan can get more detailed. The researchers who published the review named above focused mainly on these strategies for slowing down the aging process: caloric restriction, good food, and nutritional supplements, among which include amino acids.

Amino acids that are specifically good for anti-aging

Some of the amino acids below serve specific functions in the body:

Taurine helps repair muscle tissue, which tends to wane in the elderly

Creatine is produced by L-arginine and methionine, which come from carnitine, and help produce healthy skin.

L-arginine also helps reduce inflammation and erectile dysfunction (ED), and serves as a metabolism booster.

L-carnitine and carnosine help support cardiovascular health– carnitine helps with skin health, weight management, and energy, plus reduces peripheral vascular disease symptoms and heart angina, while carnosine lowers cholesterol and also reduces the risk of atherosclerosis.

L-glutamine stores sugar as glycogen instead of fat in the body, and is important for skin health.

Cysteine is a powerful detoxifier and required along with glutamine and glycine in order to make glutathione. The Washington Times called the amino acid glutathione an anti-aging machine!

Aging is progressive, irreversible, and a universal human phenomenon. Utilizing amino acids and other supplements may help protect against damage to molecules such as proteins, DNA, lipids, organs, and our cells protects against diseases like heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, and osteoporosis.

Taking amino acids, among other supplements, and eating a healthy diet aids cellular mechanisms and may help you live longer. Please check with your doctor before taking any supplements.


Lower Blood Sugar – Essential Amino Acids and Diabetes

The question of whether essential amino acids and diabetes had a relationship was a question asked by researchers at the Biochemistry Research Department, part of the Vision Research Foundation in Chennai, India. What they wanted to look at was testing of free amino acids in type 2 diabetic patients to see if oral supplementation would affect these patients.

Diabetes is a disease where too much sugar (glucose) is in the blood. Some people can have type 1 diabetes from childhood, or get it later, but type 2 diabetes is more common, and is typically developed, chronic, and lifelong as well. Technically diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, where the body is unable to produce enough (or any) insulin, which causes these very high glucose levels in blood plasma of patients who have it.

In 2007, the amount of people diagnosed with diabetes, who were 20 years or older, equaled about 1.6 million. Today, in the United States alone, about 7.8 percent of the population—approx. 23.6 million people—have this serious and lifelong disease. The question of essential amino acids and diabetes comes into play because of glucose and insulin.

Insulin, the pancreas, and glucose

Insulin is a hormone created by the pancreas, which must be present in order for glucose to get into our cells (used by the body as food). However, with diabetes, the produces little to no insulin, so the cells do not respond properly, then glucose builds up in the blood and is excreted through the urine; therefore, even though the body has a large amount of glucose, all of that energy is lost. The hope, according to the scientists in India who wanted to test essential amino acids and diabetes, was that amino acids might help with blood glucose levels.

Essential amino acids and diabetes

In a pilot clinical trial the researchers, Sulochana K Natarajan, S Lakshmi, et al., had tested the glucose levels in the blood plasma of Streptozotocin-induced rats that were diabetic. Whether essential amino acids and diabetes, where the former would affect the latter, were related was the question, so they designed an oral test to determine if the effect of such amino acid supplements would help patients that had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

77 subjects with type 2 diabetes participated for two months in a double blind pilot clinical trial. Both sexes, between the ages of 30-60, were involved in the trial and received oral antidiabetic tablets. The essential amino acids and diabetes link was examined by dividing the patients into two groups based on oral supplementation.

The supplements for essential amino acids and diabetes testing included:

1. Lysine

2. Essential amino acids

3. Amino acids and (fat-and-water-soluble) vitamins

4. Calcium phosphate (the control)

Regarding essential amino acids and diabetes, “essential” means that these aminos must be gotten from food or supplements since the body cannot produce them on its own.

Essential amino acids typically include:


The scientists tested the subjects who had essential amino acids and diabetes were examined for: fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose, plasma amino acids, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and post-prandial immunoreactive insulin, urea and creatinine in plasma and sugar, proteins and albumin, plus ketones and proteins.

The results of the trial “revealed a significant decrease in post-prandial plasma glucose (P<0.05) in group B when compared to groups C and D after 45 days. Plasma Arginine was increased in group C from 3.84 to 9.24 mg/dl.” Additionally, the patients having oral essential amino acids and diabetes (type 2) showed a “decrease … [in] plasma glucose without any change in plasma insulin levels, perhaps due to improved insulin sensitivity.”

Although this is good news regarding essential amino acids and diabetes, the long term effects of essential amino acids needs continued study.


Connection between Folic Acid and Amino Acid Homocysteine

There is a connection between folic acid and amino acid homocysteine, but what is it? Folic acid and amino acid (homocysteine, one of the 22 amino acids) functions are quite different, but the former does affect the latter. In fact, blood levels of homocysteine in the body are lowered in the presence of folic acid.

Folic acid is also known as folate; however, folate is slightly different. Folate—a bioavailable and natural form of vitamin B9—comes from the word ‘foliage’ because it is found in leafy greens, such as spinach and other greens, but also from fortified/enriched cereals and animal foods like eggs or liver, as well as plant foods like broccoli, brussel sprouts, lentils, beans, asparagus, cantaloupe, and bananas. Folic acid is merely the synthetic form of folate, and is found in supplements.

Folic acid/folate (vitamin B9) helps the body produce energy, is needed for mental and emotional health, and helps prevent neural tube birth defects like spina bifida, which occurs during the first month of pregnancy, especially in high risk pregnancies. Folic acid deficiencies can occur in people due to alcoholism, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease.

The terms (and products) folic acid and amino acid are two different things; where folic acid is vitamin B9, and amino acids like homocysteine, cysteine, leucine, lysine, carnitine, and so on, are simply the building blocks of proteins. All 22 common amino acids are found in protein foods such as meats (chicken, pork, beef, etc.) as well as fish and eggs. Eggs, then, are actually a good source of both folic acid and amino acid content.

So what is the connection between folic acid and amino acid homocysteine?

Although amino acids are necessary for health, sometimes it is not good to have too much of a good thing; homocysteine is one of these amino acids where elevated blood levels of the amino acid can actually cause health problems.

According to Dr. Weil, elevated homocysteine levels are “linked to an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Elevated homocysteine levels are thought to contribute to plaque formation by damaging arterial walls. High levels may also act on blood platelets and increase the risks of clot formation; however, whether high levels of homocysteine actually cause cardiovascular disease has yet to be agreed upon. … In addition, some evidence suggests that people with elevated homocysteine levels have twice the normal risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.”

The folic acid and amino acid connection is affected by diet as well. People who eat a lot of meat in comparison to leafy greens (that have folate/folic acid) or fruits tend to be highest in homocysteine levels. B vitamins and folic acid help reduce homocysteine levels. Additionally, says Dr. Weil, “homocysteine is also produced in the body from another amino acid, methionine. One of methionine’s main functions is to provide methyl groups for cellular reactions. … Typically, homocysteine then receives another methyl group from either folic acid or vitamin B6 to regenerate methionine.”

Folic acid supplements usually come in .4 to .8 grams, but prescription strength is at 1 g/day, although older pregnant women or high risk moms can take up to 4+ g/day (doctor prescribed). If you are low in folic acid and amino acid levels supplements can be taken for either. High stress and increased coffee consumption can also raise homocysteine levels, however. Homocysteine levels can also be elevated due to psoriasis, kidney disease, or even low thyroid hormones.

Other than talking with your doctor, one of the best ways to deal with the folic acid and amino acid connection, especially if there is an issue, is to eat healthy, get enough exercise, and make sure your daily diet includes plenty of leafy greens and fresh fruits and vegetables and less meat and fried foods, which may also reduce cholesterol and aid cardiovascular health as an added bonus.